A city is a synthetic body whose identity is forged by the historical structure, lifestyles and culture of societies it hosts and the geographical conditions of the environment in which it is located. In other words, it is a living organism that creates its own rules under the influence of universal, regional and local processes and based on competition. Anatolia, which has housed many permanent settlements by different communities, displays a landscape where many settlements with different functions were established thanks to the advantages provided by its natural and human structure. As a result of political, social, economic and cultural phenomena, the settlements established here occupied a central position at times, and continued their existence as small cities, towns or even villages. Among the settlements in Anatolia, the city of Sivas, an important location especially in terms of political, military and commercial aspects, has had a deep impact on its surrounding region. The texture and physical structure of the city, which has been shaped under the sovereignty of different states such as Hittites, Persians, Macedonians, Romans, Seljuks and Ottomans since the ancient times, has constantly changed as a result of political events, wars and population movements over time. Consequently, different opinions are put forward even about the establishment of the city of Sivas, the etymology of its name, when and where the city was founded. According to the most widely accepted theory, the physical structure of the city of Sivas started in 17 A.D. around the 30-meter-high hill in the city center, which was called Sebasteia during the Roman period and is now known as Toprak Tepe. Shortly after the victory of Manzikert in 1071, Sivas, which was taken over by the Danishmandids subject to the Great Seljuks, flourished rapidly in this period, similar to Islamic cities in terms of physical structure. This Turkish-Islamic synthesized change continued during the periods of the Seljuks of Turkey, the Ilkhanids, the Eratnaids and Kadı Burhanettin chiefdoms and the Ottoman Empire.


Sivas, Rome, Seljuk, city, reconstruction, settlement